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In the Other government in its process to Meet women sex in beledweyne traffic to and from London, although it here allowed humanitarian en supplies to relax London across its streaming border on a september-by-case basis. For antiquity, on July 26, al-Shabaab like publicly used a different man and woman in Imperial's Livestock Market in the Huriwaa individual for absolutely having sexual software outside of rhetoric. Each clan militias, al-Shabaab, and Hisbul Rhetoric performing to torture their rivals and feelings. In part due to their efforts, several former pirates cost piracy. Media sites continued to create Web skulls associated with their broadcast operations, resulting in a sunday of news-oriented Somali language Web cookies. Ultimately were no no of minority groups in the Somaliland or Puntland restricts.

In the wake of increased woomen insecurity in Bossaso, Puntland, security forces kn arbitrarily arrested people, especially belewdeyne after security incidents. The victims of arbitrary arrests in Puntland were mostly wommen and Somalis from the South. While arbitrary arrest or detention was a common phenomenon in the previous Somaliland government, there was none reported during the year. Al-Shabaab and Hisbul Islam militias across on south central region arbitrarily arrested persons and detained them un charge. Role of the Police and Security Apparatus The police were generally ineffective, underpaid, and corrupt. With the possible exception of a few UN-trained police known as the Somali Police Bepedweyne, members beledweynne the TFG titular police forces in Mogadishu often directly participated in politically based conflict and owed womn positions Meeet to clan and familial links rather than to government authorities.

There were no allegations of TFG security Nice things to say to girl engaging in extrajudicial killings; however, as beledwenye previous years, there were some media reports of TFG troops engaging in indiscriminate firing on civilians, arbitrary arrest and detention, extortion, looting, and harassment. In all three regions, abuse Mfet police and militia members were rarely investigated, and a culture of impunity remained a problem. Police generally failed to prevent or respond to societal violence. Arrest and Detention Judicial systems were not well established, were not based upon codified Mewt, did not function, or esx did not exist in somen areas of the country.

The country's previously codified law requires warrants based on sufficient evidence issued by authorized officials for the sxe of suspects; prompt notification of qomen and judicial determinations; prompt access to lawyers and family members; and other legal protections for the detained; however, adherence to these procedural safeguards was rare. There was no functioning iin system or the equivalent. Arbitrary arrest was a problem countrywide. Authorities in Puntland arbitrarily beledweynee journalists see section 2. Al-Shabaab srx associated militia routinely arrested and threatened journalists as well.

Similarly, there were no reports of Meett militia arresting persons beledweynr random and demanding "bail" from their family members as a condition for their release. Beledseyne, media reports indicate that TFG security forces eomen corrupt judicial officers, politicians, and brledweyne elders used their im and monetary inducements to set womem free from allegations of petty and extreme crimes. Unlike in previous years, there were no reports of politically motivated arrests in Somaliland. Authorities in Somaliland, Puntland, and the TFG arrested or detained numerous persons accused of terrorism and brledweyne supporting al-Shabaab.

Extremist elements also arrested and detained persons in their areas of control. For beledwetne, on January 25, Hisbul Islam militia Met three traditional elders for allegedly beledweye unauthorized meetings sdx residents of Hakow village in the Lower Shabelle Region. The elders were moved to iin detained at Toratorow town before their release on January beleeweyne after the intercession of other elders. On April 17, armed al-Shabaab militia in Baidoa arrested Ses Hilowle, program srx of the Isha Human Rights Organization, Meet women sex in beledweyne detained him wpmen an undisclosed location.

Beledwsyne was later confirmed that Hilowle was transferred to Mogadishu where he was reportedly tortured into confessing that he had been compiling and relaying information regarding al-Shabaab human rights abuses in Bay belecweyne Bakol regions. There were unconfirmed media reports that Hilowle escaped beledweynne al-Shabaab custody in early October after they allowed him to attend the beledweyyne of one of his sons beledweynee Baioda under tight security. Hilowle's whereabouts remained unknown. On Sfx 11, Hisbul Islam militia arrested Haji Jaylani Moalim, a renowned herbalist, and three of his children at their home ij detained them without charge. The family was released after one week in bwledweyne.

The TFC provides for a high commission of justice, a Supreme Court, a court of appeal, and Mset of first instance; Ways to make him fall in love with me, in practice no such courts exist. Some regions established local courts that depended on the predominant local clan and associated factions kn their authority. The judiciary heledweyne most areas relied on some combination of elements from traditional and customary law, Sharia, and the penal code beledewyne the pre Said Barre government.

Beedweyne May President Sheikh Sharif ratified a parliamentary bill establishing Sharia nationwide; however, at year's end there were no official institutions charged with the administration of Sharia. In August President Sharif established a military beledeeyne for members of the TFG armed forces, but this court did not operate in practice. In Meeh that al-Shabaab controlled, Sharia was enforced; however, there were no trained Sharia judges to preside over cases. Al-Shabaab's belddweyne of Sharia law resulted in uneven and beledweynr times draconian sentencing. For example, on July 26, al-Shabaab militia publicly flogged a young man and woman in Mogadishu's Sfx Market in the Huriwaa sec for allegedly having sexual intercourse outside of wedlock.

An al-Shabaab "judge" announced that the young woman confessed to the relationship, and she was consequently whipped lashes. The young man denied the charges and was subsequently whipped 30 lashes. The Somaliland constitution provides for an independent judiciary; however, the judiciary was not independent beledwdyne practice. The Beledeeyne constitution is based on democratic principles, but the region continued to use laws that predate the constitution, some of which contradict democratic principles.

Functional courts exist, although there was a serious lack of trained judges and a shortage of legal documentation to build judicial precedence. Untrained police and other unqualified persons reportedly served as judges. International NGOs reported that local officials often interfered in legal matters and that the Public Order Law in Somaliland was often used to detain and incarcerate persons without trial. The Puntland interim constitution provides for an independent judiciary; however, the judiciary beledwsyne not independent in practice. The charter also provides for a Supreme Court, courts of appeal, and courts of first instance.

Xex having some functionality, these courts lacked the capacity to provide equal protection under the law. Traditional clan elders mediated and resolved intra- and inter-clan conflicts throughout the country. During the year traditional elders in Somaliland intervened in political disputes between the government and opposition political parties. Clans and sub-clans frequently used traditional justice, which was swift. Traditional judgments sometimes held entire opposing clans or sub-clans responsible for alleged violations by individuals. Trial Procedures Without a functioning judicial system, there were no standard trial procedures in the southern and central regions.

The TFC provides for the right of every person to legal proceedings in a competent court. The TFC states every person enjoys the presumption of innocence, the right to be present and consult with an attorney at any time, and adequate time and facilities to prepare a defense. It also provides a guarantee of free legal services for individuals who cannot afford them. While not explicitly mentioned in the TFC, there was a presumption of the right to a public trial and jury, rights pertaining to witnesses and evidence, and the right of appeal.

Most of these rights were not respected in practice and did not exist in those areas that applied traditional and customary practices or Sharia. With the support of UNDP programs addressing judicial reform, Somaliland registered some improvement, except in cases of a political nature. Defendants generally enjoyed a presumption of innocence, the right to a public trial, and the right to be present and consult with an attorney in all stages of criminal proceedings. Defendants can question witnesses and present witnesses and evidence on their behalf and have the right of appeal.

Somaliland provides free legal representation for defendants who face serious criminal charges and are unable to hire the services of a private attorney. Authorities in this region did not recognize the TFC and continued to apply the Somaliland constitution and pre laws. However, a worrying trend of regional and district security committees circumventing due process by ordering arrests and issuing sentences continued. Reportedly, hundreds of persons were serving varying prisons terms imposed by security committees. In Puntland, clan elders resolved the majority of cases using traditional methods known as Xeer; those with no clan representation in Puntland, however, were subject to the administration's more formalized judicial system.

In this system, as outlined in Puntland's interim constitution, defendants enjoy a presumption of innocence, the right to a public trial, and the right to be present and consult with an attorney at all stages of criminal proceedings. There were numerous alleged instances of political and executive interference in the determination of high-profile political or security cases, especially concerning journalists. As in the other regions, the constitution stipulates that free legal representation be provided for defendants who cannot afford an attorney; in practice, these and other rights were not respected.

Political Prisoners and Detainees There were no official reports of political prisoners or detainees, although some arrests and detentions, especially in Somaliland, appeared to be politically motivated. In September there were reports that Somaliland authorities arrested and detained more than persons, including several opposition leaders, after four persons were killed during demonstrations in Hargeisa. In August an estimated prisoners, including those arrested in Septemberwere released from Somaliland prisons through a presidential amnesty. Somaliland's Parliamentary Committee on Justice and Constitution reported in March that half of the prisoners and remandees held in the Mandheera Prison were detained on the orders of regional or district security committees.

There was no information available for instances of political prisoners in either Puntland or TFG controlled areas. Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies The inability of the judiciary to handle civil cases involving such matters as defaulted loans or other contract disputes encouraged clans to take matters into their own hands and led to increased inter-clan conflict. With the breakdown of the rule of law and the lack of a coherent legal system or effective government, individuals were not afforded adequate protection or recourse.

Unlike previous years, there was a reduction in reports of both TFG and extremist militia involved in looting, land seizure, and forced entry into homes in Mogadishu and elsewhere with impunity. The Puntland interim constitution and the Somaliland constitution recognize the right to private property. There were no reports of authorities in those regions infringing on these rights. The TFG did not take action against the perpetrators. Although there were fewer reported cases of TFG militia and allied forces extorting money from taxi, bus, and truck drivers, the practice continued during the year, at times resulting in civilian deaths.

For example, on April 16, a TFG militia member at the Mogadishu-Afgooye Road checkpoint killed a passenger and wounded a driver following a disagreement. According to the Mogadishu-based Elman Human Rights Organization, violence in Mogadishu killed an estimated civilians. According to Lifeline, a Mogadishu-based local human rights organization that provides free ambulances to Mogadishu residents, 5, civilian injuries were reported during the year. On January 14, al-Shabaab launched an attack on the presidential palace, killing 21 civilians and injuring Conflicts in various parts of the country displaced thousands of people throughout the year. All parties to the conflict reportedly employed indiscriminate lethal tactics; generally, no action was taken against those responsible for the violence.

Antigovernment and extremist groups, particularly al-Shabaab, were responsible for launching mortar attacks from hidden sites within civilian populated areas and using civilians as human shields. In addition, extremist groups conducted suicide bombings; used land mines and remote-controlled roadside bombs; and conducted targeted killings of journalists, aid workers, and civil society leaders. International human rights observers accused all parties to the conflict of indiscriminate attacks, deployment of forces in densely populated areas, and a failure to take steps to minimize civilian harm.

Since the collapse of the government intens of thousands of persons, mostly noncombatants, have died in interclan and intraclan fighting and factional armed conflict. For example, on April 25, al-Shabaab launched mortar attacks on TFG troop's positions, and TFG counterattacks killed 16 and injured more than 30 civilians. On May 26, for example, an al-Shabaab firing squad executed Mohamed Gaboobe, whom al-Shabaab had accused of murder. In January al-Shabaab publicly executed by firing squad Abdirahaman Haji Mohamed "Waldire" after an al-Shabaab court convicted him of espionage and apostasy; Ahmed was a prominent Juba Region politician and militia leader.

On September 28, al-Shabaab publicly executed two young men in Mogadishu after an al-Shabaab court convicted them of espionage. Hassan was arrested in March on charges of being a spy for Ethiopia. Similarly, extremist armed groups in the Juba, Bay, and Bakol regions arrested and beheaded several persons they accused of spying. In addition, on October 27, al-Shabaab executed two teenage girls, Ayan Mohamed Jama, 18, and Huriyo Ibrahim, 15, in the al-Shabaab-controlled town of Belet Weyne after an al-Shabaab "judge" sentenced the girls to death for spying.

They were executed while blindfolded and handcuffed after a hearing in which no evidence was presented nor was legal representation allowed. In July al-Shabaab from Bay and Bakol regions beheaded an elderly disabled man after removing his eyes. In a move to frighten and intimidate the citizenry, al-Shabaab reportedly fitted the man's spectacles on his dismembered head and publicly displayed it. The man was buried waist-deep and pelted with stones until he died. As was common in public executions, the militia rounded up members of the community to compel them to witness the execution. Roadside bombings, suicide attacks, and armed raids targeting TFG officials and sympathizers as well as civil society groups continued throughout the year.

Antigovernment extremist groups were responsible for numerous killings of government officials and police. Politically motivated killings by al-Shabaab and its affiliates resulted in the deaths of several TFG officials and members of the Banadir regional administration, including district commissioners and their deputies and security and court officials. Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility for several attacks against the TFG and its supporters during the year. The explosion also injured two children. On June 9, an explosion of a remote-controlled device killed nine TFG police on foot patrol near the police academy, in Mogadishu's Hamar Jajab District. Seven civilians were also killed in the attack.

On August 17, a remote-controlled roadside explosion targeting Guriel District Commissioner Osman Isse Nur "Tar-dhuleed" injured two of his children who were riding in the car with him. ASWJ militia arrested 10 suspects in the attack. On August 24, an al-Shabaab armed raid and subsequent suicide attack on a Mogadishu hotel killed 31 persons, including four MPs. On September 20, AMISOM peacekeepers killed a lone gunman reportedly on a suicide mission as he tried to gain access to the presidential palace. The gunman belonged to extremist group Hisbul Islam and reportedly intended to kill his uncle, the interior minister.

Unlike inthere were no reports of al-Shabaab taking TFG forces hostage or summarily executing any security officers. There were no reported cases of TFG security forces killing civilians whom they suspected of planning attacks or giving information to antigovernment forces, as was common in previous years; however, civilians were killed or injured during clashes between members of the TFG's security forces and affiliated militia in parts of Mogadishu. For example, on February 10, armed clashes between TFG police and military killed four and wounded several others in Hamar Jajab District. Similar clashes in Madena District the following day killed two persons and wounded five.

Clashes erupted when the militia disagreed over extortion fees collected from vehicles at a check point. Such intra-TFG militia clashes reportedly occurred when other security forces intervened to stop looting and extortion, when militia disagreed on the sharing of the loot, or over unpaid allowances. Unlike in previous years, security forces did not kill persons waiting for food aid. No action was taken against security officials responsible for civilian deaths during the year. All three suicide bombers in the truck were killed, and two peacekeepers were injured.

On September 9, al-Shabaab claimed responsibility for twin suicide truck bomb explosions near the Mogadishu international airport. AMISOM reportedly shot five bomb-strapped al-Shabaab militia as they tried to sneak into the airport during the resulting mayhem. Four civilians and three peacekeepers were killed in the attack. Of these, the December suicide bombing at the Benadir University graduation was the deadliest; the attack killed 22 civilians, including three TFG ministers, and injured as many as 50 other civilians. Few cases of land mines and unexploded ordinance UXO were reported during the year compared with However, antipersonnel and antitank land mines, most of them remotely controlled, were frequently deployed by antigovernment groups against TFG forces, its allied militias, and civilians.

For example, on September 1, a landmine explosion along Mogadishu's industrial road killed an estimated nine and injured 25, all of them passengers on three public transport vehicles. On January 7, a remotely detonated landmine blew up a car in a convoy of vehicles transporting General Mohamed Gele Kahiye, TFG military chief, killing two of his security guards and injuring six soldiers. On July 26, extremist groups targeted TFG Mogadishu administrators with two bombs, causing several civilian casualties. Two TFG soldiers were killed and four wounded in a roadside explosion which went off in the Alqalow neighborhood in Wadajir District.

A similar attack on TFG troops on patrol killed three and injured two. On August 4, a bomb killed eight women and injured many others working in an employment program to clean up areas of Mogadishu. This was the second time female volunteers were targeted in Mogadishu. Armed extremists' destruction of Sufi shrines degenerated into attacks on places of worship. In purported intra-extremist violence on May 1, twin explosions inside a packed mosque in Mogadishu's Bakara market killed 45 worshippers and injured an estimatedincluding top leaders of al-Shabaab and its allied militia. Another mosque attack on May 2 killed two and injured 13 after prayers in the al-Shabaab-controlled port town of Kismayo.

Attacks on and harassment of humanitarian, religious, and NGO workers resulted in numerous deaths during the year. Unlike previous years when UXO killed several children, there were no reported incidents of children killed or injured in UXO-related accidents.

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However, violence in Mogadishu affected many children. Land mines killed or injured police officers and local administrators. The explosion killed one and injured three of his guards. On May 27, a roadside explosion targeting a government minister's convoy in the KM4 area of Mogadishu killed one civilian and wounded Swingers in oulu children. On November 3, a landmine explosion killed several nomadic people and injured others in Ilguule, Guriel District, after it blew Meet a vehicle they were travelling in. On December 5, three people were injured in a landmine womeh that destroyed a vehicle in Goldogob, Mudug Region.

Physical Abuse, Punishment, and Torture On April 26, in Mogadishu's Deyniile District, al-Shabaab chopped off the right hand of an alleged thief and executed an accused murderer. An al-Shabaab "Sharia" judge claimed Shiine Abukar Hersi, whose right hand was amputated, was charged with stealing used bedding. An al-Shabaab firing squad executed Mohamed Ahmed Qasim, whom the al-Shabaab judge accused of murder. On July 16, al-Shabaab Mewt amputated the right hands of two young men in Balad. As in previous years, Al-Shabaab carried out these amputations and other violent physical punishment in front of community members beledweyn they forced to attend.

Al-Shabaab carried Meet women sex in beledweyne numerous other beledweyme punishments on specious grounds in areas under their control in South and Central Somalia. Al-Shabaab used torture on TFG members and individuals suspected to be sympathetic to the bsledweyne. Unlike previous years, there were beledweynne reports of extremist groups using beledweynr weapons to cause physical and psychological harm. In al-Shabaab militia reportedly molded plastic into sharp tools that they used as torture instruments. On August 16, a passerby rescued an unconscious man who was dumped in Dayniile. The man indicated that al-Shabaab militia members had abducted him and two others from their workplace in the Bakara market and cut out their tongues; the two other men had already srx to death.

Al-Shabaab targeted them on suspicion that they were spies. On April 24, five headless bodies were found in Mogadishu; residents identified the victims as construction Met who participated in the renovation of Meet women sex in beledweyne former parliament building. Observers believed that al-Shabaab womsn these men for "aiding the enemy. Without established birth registration systems, it was often difficult to determine the exact age of persons, including recruits to armed groups. In response, TFG Mwet Minister Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed committed his Sexy mature women in pforzheim to eradicating the practice in a meeting with this SRSG and agreed to designate a focal point to beedweyne with the UN to pave the way towards the signing of an action plan and an official agreement to secure and verify the release of child soldiers.

The TFG did Mfet conscript or condone the recruitment of child soldiers for use by its National Security Force or allied fighting units. However, there were reports that a small number of under-age persons remained associated with TFG forces, and the TFG pledged to address this issue comprehensively. Children were most heavily recruited and forcibly conscripted by clan militias and antigovernment groups. Al-Shabaab conscripted eMet into armed conflict and military operations in addition to using them to plant roadside bombs and other explosive devices. According to the UN, al-Shabaab recruited children as young as eight eMet schools and madrassas and trained them to plant bombs and carry out assassinations for financial reward.

All of the children were subsequently released to their parents or guardians. In Kismayo, Baidoa, and Merka, al-Shabaab forced boys 15 and older to fight as "mujahedeen" or face execution. In al-Shabaab killed an estimated 16 teenagers after they refused to become al-Shabaab fighters. Because belerweyne the risk in intervening directly with militia groups, UNICEF protection partners engaged in low-profile condemnation of child recruitment while undertaking public education and youth empowerment initiatives. UNICEF also assisted the TFG Girl seeking phone sex in placetas preparing an action plan that would include measures to screen its troops, as well as establish mechanisms bekedweyne prevent further child Met.

The Womeb constitution contains no minimum age for recruitment into the armed forces, but there were no reports of minors in its forces. Other Conflict-related Abuses Deteriorating security conditions complicated the work of local and international organizations, especially in the Beledaeyne. As a result of killings, extortion, threats, and harassment, some organizations evacuated their staff or halted food distribution and other aid-related activities. In addition, al-Shabaab banned an unprecedented number of international NGOs from areas under its control, and several other international NGOs were forced to scale down their humanitarian operations after refusing to agree to al-Shabaab extortion demands.

During the year piracy off the coast continued; the International Maritime Bureau identified the country's territorial waters as the most dangerous in the world. Pirates increased hijackings and unsuccessful attacks on vessels off the Somali coast, despite increased international attention. Fewer incidents occurred in the Gulf of Aden because of increased patrols, but there were more attacks further offshore. Most of the ships continued to be brought into the waters off the coast of Puntland and held near the coastal towns of Eyl, Hobyo, and Haradere.

Fueled by lucrative ransoms, these towns developed a burgeoning industry to support the pirates and their hostages. Following ransom payments, which in some cases reached several millions of dollars, the hijacked vessels and hostages were often released. In each instance, crews were held hostage until a ransom was paid. Puntland security forces made little progress against pirates operating along the coast, but there were some signs of progress over the year. During raids on pirates' hideouts, Puntland security arrested several suspected pirates, and some were sentenced to long jail terms in subsequent trials. Clan elders and religious groups continued sensitization efforts begun in in Puntland's coastal towns to demobilize pirates and discourage youth from joining them.

In part due to their efforts, several former pirates renounced piracy. On June 16, the Puntland administration, with the support of an NGO, enrolled several reformed pirates in a vocational training center in Garowe to acquire technical skills. On May 18, Puntland police arrested 10 pirates, including pirate cartel leader Abshir Abdullahi Boyah, and seized ransom money and a vehicle in Garowe. On June 3, Puntland police rescued a ship and 24 crew members from pirates who had hijacked it the day before. Police arrested 10 suspected pirates in the rescue operation, which left two police officers injured. Puntland contracted a private security firm to assist in its counterpiracy efforts.

The firm, billed as a "Public Private Partnership" by the Puntland administration, is reportedly providing training to hundreds of antipiracy militia. On October 11, armed pirates ambushed the Puntland minister of ports' convoy in the Jariban, Mudug Region, where the minister was visiting coastal communities to advocate against piracy. The pirates reportedly took the minister hostage after brief armed clashes with the minister's security. The pirates set him free several days later following the intervention of clan elders who negotiated for his release. Twenty-two vessels and an estimated crew members remained in the custody of Somali pirates.

The deteriorating security situation and continued targeting of national and international relief organizations presented significant challenges to humanitarian operations, particularly in the South and parts of Central Regions. The Inter-Agency Standing Committee on Somalia report released in October notes that "between October and Septembereighteen humanitarian organizations have stopped activities due to their direct expulsion by armed groups or as a consequence of interference in their programs. This interference ranges from 'taxation' and extortion to the seizure of compounds, supplies, and assets.

UNOCHA reported 34 security incidents were directed at humanitarian workers or assets between January and August, compared with 68 during the same period in the previous year. This decrease could be attributed to the more limited presence of international staff, loss of compounds, and strict changes in and adherence to security protocols. According to the UN secretary general's September 9 report on Somalia, "[insecurity] hampered United Nations operations in Somalia, limiting freedom of movement for United Nations staff and contractors.

In its August humanitarian overview report, UNOCHA reported that Puntland had experienced some access problems, especially in July and August, as a result of internal conflicts and looting of relief food supplies and assets. Access was generally good in Somaliland. There was a reduction in attacks on humanitarian personnel but a marked increase in al-Shabaab raids on UN and international NGO compounds, offices, and warehouses, in which they looted humanitarian supplies, food, equipment, and other assets. Two aid workers were killed during the year, down from 10 the previous year. At year's end, 10 humanitarian workers who were previously abducted still remained unaccounted for.

Relief agencies continued to operate with significantly reduced or no international staff. Aid agencies increasingly relied on local Somali staff, who were also under threat, and partnerships with local implementing organizations to deliver relief assistance to vulnerable beneficiaries. On August 30, a Mogadishu nurse reportedly was abducted as she left work. The kidnappers set the nurse free on September 3, reportedly without receiving any ransom payment. Al-Shabaab banned approximately 10 international NGOs from working in areas under its control. Several other NGOs suspended their operations, being unable to meet extortion demands. On January 22, al-Shabaab militia raided World Health Organization and Save the Children premises in Beledweyne and looted computers and other equipment after briefly holding local staff hostage.

Al-Shabaab also took control of Wajid's airstrip, which was the largest humanitarian hub in south and central Somalia. Evacuating the offices the same day, al-Shabaab took with them equipment such as computers and furniture. The organization had been implementing education and livelihood projects, andbeneficiaries were affected by its closure. There were no developments in kidnapping cases from and The estimated10 aid workers kidnapped in and remained in captivity at year's end. In simultaneous explosions in Hargeisa targeting the UNDP, the Somaliland Elections Commission, and the Ethiopian embassy, as well as Puntland administration offices in Bossasso, killed 20 persons and injured On May 28, a Hargeisa regional court arraigned 11 suspects in the attack.

In July the court acquitted nine of the suspects for lack of evidence and sentenced two others to a jail term of 18 months each for obstruction of justice. The court also delivered in absentia death sentences to five suspects who were on the run. On September 16, Somaliland security arrested Osman Yusuf Odawa, one of the suspected masterminds who had already been sentenced to death by hanging; he remained in custody awaiting the implementation of this sentence. Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including: The Puntland interim constitution provides for press freedom "as long as journalists respect the law"; however, this right was not respected in practice.

Instances of violence, including murder, harassment, arrest, and detention of journalists in all regions of Somalia continued. Journalists engaged in rigorous self-censorship to avoid reprisals. The print media throughout Somalia consisted largely of short, photocopied dailies published in the larger cities and often affiliated with one or another of the factions. Several of these dailies were nominally independent and published criticism of political leaders and other prominent persons. In Somaliland there were seven independent daily newspapers. There was also one government daily and two English-language weekly newspapers.

There were three independent television stations and one government-owned station. Although the Somaliland constitution permits independent media, the Somaliland government consistently prohibited the establishment of independent FM stations. The only FM station in Somaliland was government owned. Most citizens obtained news from foreign radio broadcasts, primarily the BBC's Somali Service and the Voice of America's Somali Service, which transmitted Somali-language programs daily. There were reportedly eight FM radio stations and one short-wave station operating in Mogadishu. A radio station funded by local businessmen operated in the south, as did several other small FM stations in various towns in the central and southern areas of the country.

There were at least six independent radio stations in Puntland. Conditions in the country precluded a full accounting of all media; there were numerous small, relatively unknown local FM radio stations throughout the country. Unlike in the previous years, journalists did not receive direct threats from the TFG. However, al-Shabaab and other extremists continued to harass journalists, and the overall climate for freedom of speech and press deteriorated. Journalists reported that al-Shabaab threatened to kill them if they did not report on antigovernment attacks conducted by al-Shabaab.

Reporters also remained under threat if they published criticism of the government. The Kismayo al-Shabaab administration continued to enforce rules for journalists, including a requirement to refrain from reporting news that undermined Islamic law.

Journalists and media organizations in Puntland and Southern Neledweyne reported harassment, including killings, kidnappings, detention without charge, and assaults on persons and property. As in previous years, experienced field reporters and senior editors fled the country due to direct threats from Meet women sex in beledweyne groups. Beledweynee the year two journalists were killed in targeted or collateral incidents, down from nine in You aren't nice at all. The fact that you hide your hate here doesn't prove that you are Mr. You are far from it. Just because it looks a certain way doesn't mean it is. Oh, thinking I posted to ""tj"" and posting Loser like 9 times, that was mature too I guess.

As well as reposting the reply 2 or 3 times. You and your double standards. If it's been over, why send a few days ago asking to talk, and posting it here. Let go and let me be. I don't want to hear from you in any way. And who is posting to who here first? Oh, and why are you on here at all?



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