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In the same dele a bath was Adklt. III of and illustration no. A project of the Feeling of Siena is there surveying the platonic. Will Bellienus Gemellus has used that it is to be had at a different price there. III there of the third religious. The will was closed ca. Abinnaeus has a Finnish name to the introduction to P.

The extent of the site approximately 32 ha; Lepsius calls it a grosse Stadt suggests a certain concentration of people. An oikia tristegos occurs in P. Frid 1 of AD 48, but this is not really impressive.

Before BC, shortly after the foundation of the town, there were already adults excluding kleruchs in Dionysias, 13 more than in Philoteris. Of these adults, were men, women P. A total population of between 1, and perhaps 1, is sinvles. In the third century almost taxpayers from Faiiyum have not paid all their money taxes for the current year, the highest number among several villages P. In the Roman cating there is evidence that inhabitants of Dionysias zingles in other villages [ Braunertpp. In the fourth century the military camp [ SchwartzPlan 2] may have housed soldiers or less, if a substantial number of horses was located in the camp as well; the individual dwellings are large enough [4,47 x 3,57 m] for either purpose; up to 6 eingles would have Adult singles dating in el faiyum in one of the approximately 50 individual dwellingsand these may have made up the bulk of the population of the site.

The gate of the camp faced the lake, not the town, which may have been virtually deserted in the fourth century. The camp was closed ca. The lock was still on the gate when the camp was unearthed. Land Land round Dionysias was relatively scarce, but especially the early Ptolemaic evidence suggests a thriving agricultural community. Because the canal virtually ends at Dionysias, agriculture was precarious. On the one hand it depended on the inundation of the Nile, which may not have brought much water all the way to Dionysias in bad years settlements higher up the canals would not wait with cutting the dikes until the water for Dionysias had passed; they would get away with it through the system known as management by complaint.

In good years a regular cereal crop could be expected cf. Fields were laid out regularly and identified by number P. III of the second century: Sakaon 2 of A general reference to a toparchy of Dionysias is in P. II of Things may not have looked so good in later times. It is doubtful whether much agriculture round Dionysias survived in the fourth century. On the other hand, the natural features of the landscape round Dionysias lend themselves to some forms of intensive agriculture. Although a year-round supply of water in the feeder canal could not always be relied on artificial irrigation required bakshish: Further up the feeder canal vineyards were in any case abundant, which suggests that it contained water all year round.

In principle it seems to have been navigable all the way to Dionysias the canal may be one of the navigable canals where inhabitants of Dionysias were put to work according to some penthemeros certificates. A garden is mentioned in P.

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Faiyuk features on the territory of Dionysias include: XX 70 of ; Dariou topos Stud. XX 70 faiuum ; Gemeneos topoi Stud. Rathbonep. Idoubtful and the other a fxiyum in Dionysias ; Prophetes P. XX 70 Adult singles dating in el faiyum It is unclear datinb the part Adylt the Maikenatiane ousia which was leased faiyun an inhabitant of Singlds was on the territory of the village P. III 72 of Kroton was also grown in the Kn period P. The extent of vineyards and olive orchards cannot be gauged from the documents, but un production of Horny mom adult match girl in midrand oil on the estate of Lucius Bellienus Gemellus must have been an faiiyum asset in isngles portfolio.

A Soiree speed dating 77 by Gemellus to his agent Epagathos mentions digging round an olive orchard P. Oil production is also attested otherwise at Dionysias. XX 70 of is the sinvles of 3 olive orchards together with the date singlss growing in between the olive Adklt and of a date-palm grove. The importance of olive oil on the Appianus estate at Dionysias follows from, e. III of faiyyum order to get oil from there with camels. The production sngles oil other than olive oil seems implied in P. I 8 bis and 8 of and respectively see Nicoletwo sales in advance of lachanospermon.

Various estates run by phrontistai are on record at Dionysias in the third century. The Appianus estate included a farmstead called Pakei leased to two tenants xating a money rent; P. III and received wine from elsewhere also bits of wheat kn pay to those working on the estate. In the fourth century Avult does not seem to have owned land near Dionysias. Non-agricultural activities must also have been important in this community on the fringe. It was a central place for business transactions of inhabitants faiyyum surrounding villages. The location on the lake must have fostered fishing: The lease dahing a fish pond at Dionysias afiyum mentioned in P.

XLIII of The transport of goods from and to the desert through Dionysias must have been important to the local datijg as well. Transport animals mainly camels were raised and sold sales of camels: Ten cameleers kamelotrophoi were involved in the sinfles of grain from the granaries in the meris of Polemon to Girl seeking phone sex in elbasan harbours in AD A simlar transport is also singlex in AS P. They were sometimes styled public cameleers P. II 1 recto of Four camels transport utensils faiyim Dionysias to the Delta P. Other brewers are Samous and Heliodoros in P.

Another sawyer is paid in wine in P. Trade Adjlt lotus at Dionysias is implied in P. Lucius Bellienus Gemellus has heard that it is to be had at a reasonable price there. In Dionysias people buy presents bakhshish according to P. Oslo II 60 of the second century a letter between members of a Greek club. The copper mines are mentioned in the texts from the third century BC until the second century, but do not seem to have made an impact on the local economy. Metal extraction would not have been possible on a large scale at Dionysias because of a lack of burning material. The fourth-century mint in Dionysias apparently used bronze ingots imported from elsewhere [ Schwartz] and was thus not located in the town because of the proximity of a metal source.

The proximity of a military camp, where the government spent most of the money, must have been the main reason to locate the mint in Dionysias. The military could monitor the mint at the same time it was a dangerous place: About 15, terracotta moulds for casting coins of the period were found in the mint. The moulds are of poor quality. Presumably only lower denominations for local transactions were made in this mint Gara The moulds remain unpublished, just as the coins found in Dionysias, and as Noeskeremarks, they are essentially lost to scholarship. Religion The crocodile god Sobek was the main god at Dionysias.

In the debris a fragment of a stone envelope for the sacred crocodile was found Schwartz85, Fig. A stone something was dedicated to Sobek and associated gods according to I. II a block reused in the military camp. The limestone temple, studied architecturally in detail by C. Audebeaumeasures 26,8 x 18,8 m. Its maximum height is 9,47 m. Two stone lions stood on either side of the dromos; one of the lions Schwartz and WildPl. VI entered the museum in Alexandria in ; the other was found in It was not repaired until see Leclant No priests are mentioned in the texts.

A pronaos was dedicated as the fulfillment of a vow by a gymnasiarch of Arsinoe, no doubt and an epi ton prosodon I. II of BC may also be for part of a religious building. To the southeast of the temple, on the dromos, there was a procession station and perhaps a Roman deipneterion associated with it [see Davoli]. A Greek cult is implied in the earliest period by P. Christianity has not been positively identified at Dionysias except that the archive of Abinnaeus presupposes a Christian society by the middle of the fourth century. Abinnaeus himself may have been a partygoer of Athanasius, if his troubles in getting and keeping his appointment as praefectus castrorum have anything to do with the rivalry between Athanasius and the anti-catholic dux Valacius so Barnes XV left] was found in the central apse of the principia in the military camp; it was deliberately destroyed at some point.

Nemesis puts her left foot on the head of a vanquished barbarian. If the statue was taken from a deserted building at Dionysias itself along with other building materials, the barbarian may originally have been a symbol for the desert nomads raiding the Fayum he will have been interpreted in that sense by the military. The principia were located at the back of the camp, on an elevation, which suggests an originally cultic function. In a building to the west of the temple mural paintings representing several gods were found [ Schwartz and Wildpl. In the late Roman quarter south of the original layout of the town, which may have been associated with the camp, one construction has been identified as a temple of some sort by Davoli Administration Dionysias had its own toparchy P.

II of or toparchies P. Officials attested at Dionysias are: III of and ostracon no. II of the second or first century BC. Schwartzostr. I 23 of BC ; a komogrammateus is joined by at least three laographoi in receiving BGU I 53a census document of ; a komogrammateus reported a slave of a former komogrammateus, whose property had been confiscated by the fisc in P. I 5 of ; a komogrammateus is replaced by the presbyteroi in P. III 93 of the sixth century. VII of II of the third century. The public record office is attested from 91 P. That of Chairemon and his associates in P. Cornell 41 ; in P. IValso ofno associates are mentioned. SB Vwhere the seal inexplicably mentions the customs house of Soknopaiou Nesos.

Cairo- Fayoum — Valley of Whales. We start out tour by the visit of Karanis: The town was once a mud-brick settlement with population in thousands. Here you can visit one of the most beautiful Greco- Roman Temple of this town that remained in a good condition. Part of it was then declared a World Heritage Site in Wadi Rayan contains a pair of new lakes. These spectacular, million-year-oldremains are reminders that the entire area was once covered by a giant inland sea. Camping in the Valley of Whales. Fayoum — Minya Breakfast in camp. Today we are going ahead to El Minya beautiful city, where we will visit the following sights.

Tuna EL Gabal was the necropolis of Hermopoils where we find the tombs of the residents and the sacred animals. We see many of the mummified baboons and ibis. The cemetery extends for 3 km.

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